By Burn Jeng Lin; SPIE (Society)
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Additional info for Optical lithography : here is why
M. S. Patent 4,953,960 (1990). 28 D. M. Williamson, “Catadioptric microlithographic reduction lenses,” Proc. Int. Optical Design Conference, OSA, 22 (1994). 29 D. Williamson, J. McClay, K. Andresen, G. Gallatin, M. Himel, J. Ivaldi, C. Mason, A. McCullough, C. Otiss, J. Shamaly, and C. 25 μm resolution step and scan system,” Proc. SPIE 2726, p. 780 (1996). 30 B. J. Lin, “The paths to subhalf-micrometer optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE 922, p. 256 (1988). Exposure Systems 27 31 G. de Zwart, M. van den Brink, R.
SPIE 334, pp. 259–262 (1982). 9 J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, “Submicron, vacuum ultraviolet contact lithography with an F2 excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(1), p. 22 (1984). 10 D. L. Spears and H. I. Smith, “Prospects for x-ray fabrication of Si IC devices,” Electron. Lett. 8, p. 102 (1972). 11 M. Hasegawa, Y. Nakayama, K. Yamaguchi, T. Terasawa and Y. Matsui, “Printing characteristics of proximity x-ray lithography and comparison with optical lithography for 100-nm node and below,” Proc.
Note that the resultant images look quite different from those on the mask, even at a very high NA, because w is chosen to be equal to or lower than λ. Fortunately, microlithographers are not concerned with reproducing all of the gray levels in the object. The main purpose of microlithography is to control the image edge position, as stated in Sec. 3. The image is kept binary by taking advantage of the resist as a high-contrast recording material and the subsequent pattern transfer processes. 13 Pupil function applied to (a) I(x), and (b) E (f)I.