Optical Lithography: Here is Why (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. by Burn J. Lin

By Burn J. Lin

This ebook is geared toward new and skilled engineers, know-how managers, and senior technicians who are looking to enhance their knowing of the picture formation physics of a lithographic procedure. Readers will learn the fundamental equations and constants that force optical lithography, research the fundamentals of publicity structures and picture formation, and are available away with a whole figuring out of method parts, processing, and optimization. Readers also will get a primer at the outlook of optical lithography and the numerous next-generation applied sciences which may tremendously improve semiconductor production within the close to destiny. subject matters include:- publicity structures- snapshot Formation- The Meter of Lithography- elements in Optical Lithography- Processing and Optimization- Immersion Lithography- Outlook for optical lithography

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George, D. Satriasaputra, J. Baselmans, H. Butler, J. van Schoot, and J. de Klerk, “Performance of a step and scan system for DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3051, p. 817 (1997). Chapter 3 Image Formation As discussed in Chapter 1, the goal of lithography is to place the edges of a given mask pattern on the wafer within a specified tolerance. Doing so with effective controls requires a good understanding of the image formation process—from the mask image to the final transferred image. The aerial image is formed from the light that illuminates the mask and carries the information of the mask pattern through the lens to focus on the image plane.

5X. Further advantages of a scanner include in-situ focusing, leveling, and alignment during scan, which improves the lithographic performance. There is no reason the width of the slot should be uniform. Perturbation of the slot width may be used to compensate for illumination nonuniformity. Also, the scanning speed can be modified to produce an exposure gradient. A step-and-scan system gains its advantages by trading off optical complexity with mechanical precision and complexity. In order to maintain throughput, the wafer stage must move at 250 mm/sec or higher.

With TM incidence, the magnetic field in the opening of the mask follows conventional assumptions [such as in Eq. 49)], except that the field in the opaque part of the mask is not zero. Conversely, the electric field in the opaque part is zero with TE incidence, but the field inside the mask opening does not fit conventional assumptions. In addition, there may be singularities at the edge of the mask opening. For illustration of the edge singularities, consult Ref. 12. 7 Electric field at and from a 3λ-wide slit.

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