Oxygen Sensing: Responses and Adaption to Hypoxia by Sukhamay Lahiri, Gregg Semenza, Nanduri R. Prabhakar

By Sukhamay Lahiri, Gregg Semenza, Nanduri R. Prabhakar

Reviewing study at the molecular foundation of oxygen homeostasis, this article describes the adjustments in intracellular signalling and gene expression that bring about physiological responses to hypoxia in unicellular, invertebrate, and mammalian species. It examines O2 sensing structures in micro organism and archaea and demonstrates interrelationships between telephone proliferation, strength metabolism, oxygen homeostasis, redox states, sign transduction and gene expression in people and different organisms. The publication describes the impression of hypoxia on carotid physiology and serve as and the influence of changes in oxygen homeostasis at the pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia, melanoma, stroke, and protracted lung sickness

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II. III. IV. Overview Introduction Results and Discussion Conclusions and Outlook References 153 153 154 155 157 160 162 167 175 175 176 181 191 194 Contents Part Two 11. 209 I. II. III. IV. 209 210 218 V. Introduction Carotid Chemoreceptor Responses in the Fetus The Stress of Being Born The Functional Role of the Peripheral Chemoreceptors at Birth Conclusion and Clinical Implication References Postnatal Maturation of the Carotid Chemoreceptor O2 Sensitivity at the Cellular Level John L. Carroll I.

Purification and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:1230–1237. 10. Wang BH, Rue E, Wang GL, Roe R, Semenza GL. Dimerization, DNA binding, and transactivation properties of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:17771–17778. 11. Bruick RK, McKnight SL. A conserved family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases that modify HIF. Science 2001; 294:1337–1340. 12. Ivan M, Kondo K, Yang H, Kim W, Valiando J, Ohh M, Salic A, Asara JM, Lane WS, Kaelin WG Jr. HIFa targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing.

The complexity of responses to hypoxia provides evidence for the fundamental nature of this physiological stimulus and the requirement to respond on many biological levels. For oxygen homeostasis to be maintained, O2 delivery must match O2 consumption. Since cell proliferation results in an inevitable increase in O2 consumption, it is perhaps not surprising that stimulation of cells by growth factors also results in increased HIF-1a expression. As described in Chapter 6 by Wolfgang Jelkmann and colleagues, a large number of growth factors and cytokines share this property.

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