Plant breeding reviews. Volume 3 by Jules Janick

By Jules Janick

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Modulations of Days to Flower by Day, Night, and Mean Temperatures and by the Day/Night Difference in Temperature 1. Early Studies of Temperature Interactions with Photoperiod 2. Below-Optimum, Above-Optimum, Optimum, and Diurnal Temperature Responses in Bean 3. Below-Optimum, Above-Optimum, Optimum, and Diurnal Temperature Responses in Sorghum 4. Below-Optimum, Above-Optimum, Optimum, and Diurnal Temperature Responses in Barley and Cowpea E. Embedding of Other Responses and Interactions Within the BelowOptimum and Above-Optimum Temperature Responses F.

Advances in knowledge of photoperiod and temperature modulations over maturity, and of genetic direction over these photoperiod-temperature responses, will reduce the proportional effect left to chance. Wien and Summerfield (1980) illustrate the need for specific and different intensities of location-dictated,genotype-directed photoperiodtemperature sensitivity for maximizing cowpea yields. Duration of rainy season is longer and rainfall is greater in the more humid climate of southern West Africa than in near desert northern West Africa.

Always, the smaller of these two opposing effects partially cancels the larger, while the larger effect totally cancels the smaller effect on days to flowering. This occurs at all temperatures except the optimum temperature for flowering where the two effects exactly cancel as next discussed. As a consequence of the always simultaneously opposing effects from a change in temperature, there is a change in days to flowering only if (1)the Qlo-modulated change in node to flower is larger (measured in days) than the change in rate of node development (also measured in time to flowering), or (2) the relative magnitudes are reversed so that the effect on days to flowering is larger via the change in rate of node development than the effect on days via the change in node to flower.

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