Poland (Modern World Nations) by Zoran Pavlovic, Professor Charles F Gritzner

By Zoran Pavlovic, Professor Charles F Gritzner

For a greater a part of its heritage, Poland's future has usually been prompted, if no longer made up our minds, through activities of its friends. From the west, Germans usually complex eastward; from the east, Russians, and later Soviets, elevated towards the west. This e-book is helping readers detect Poland's tradition, historical past, and political and fiscal events.

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The Teutonic Knights, who had been invited to Poland a century Poland Through Time earlier to help thwart the Prussian menace, extended their mili-­ tary presence between the lower Vistula and areas adjacent to the Baltic. To the south, Poland faced increased pressure from the rulers of Bohemia; their goal to achieve control over Silesia threatened to diminish Polish control beyond the marshlands of central Vistula and ­Warta. Casimir earned the title “the Great” for preserving Poland and much more.

During the following years, he continued to advocate political reforms. This leadership and resulting widespread popularity earned Wałe˛sa the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and he won Poland’s first fully democratic presidential election in 1990. Soon afterward, however, Poles became dissatisfied with the slow progress of reforms and gradually changed their attitude ­toward Wałe˛sa.

In terms of a sense of common ancestral belonging, a vast majority of the country’s people identify themselves today as Poles. In fact, about 97 percent consider themselves to be ethnic Poles, thereby making the country ethnically quite uniform. The remaining 3 percent of the population is made up of sev-­ eral groups that traditionally resided in the borderland regions and in large urban centers. Belarus and Ukrainian minori-­ ties are found in eastern and southeastern Poland. A German ethnic minority resides in areas adjacent to Poland’s western boundaries.

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