By John Miller
Within the reign of Charles II, over a century after the Protestant Reformation, England used to be confronted with the chance of a Catholic king while the King's brother, the long run James II grew to become a Catholic. The response to his conversion, the fears it aroused and their heritage shape the most topic of this ebook.
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Extra resources for Popery and Politics in England 1660-1688
1660 NS, Rom. Tr. 98, fols. 259-60, 263-4, 278; Nunz. Fian. 47, fol. 10; Cal. Clar. S. , v, 43, 358; AAW A32, pp. 284, 287, 294, 393; St George's Cathedral, Southwark, MS 1 06e, p. 39 I . Dodd, iii, 385; Tanari, 9 April 1677 NS, CUL Add. MS 4878, fol. 642; Courtin au Roi, 8 April 1 677 NS, Baschet 1 35. 5 and finding shelter where he could. A few missions fell somewhere between the two main types ; the priest served a circuit, but operated from the house of one person - a yeoman, perhaps, or a widow - who provided him with shelter, food and perhaps fodder for his horse, but no salary.
In 1 67 3 Charles ordered that all Papists should leave the court, but some soon trickled back. In 1 6 7 5 most of the English, Scots and Irish priests were driven out ; in 1 678 most of the lay Catholics left too, except for a few of the queen's seivants. When James II came to the throne, Catholics flocked to court once more, but it was James's old courtier friends not the Catholic gentry of the shires, who exercised political influence. The distinction between ' court' and ' country' Catholics during this period has long been noted by historians.
The church officially retained the theory of the deposing power, while taking no steps to put it into practice. In 1 679, when the duke of York was in temporary exile at Brussels, he complained that an Irish friar had vigorously upheld the deposing power at the university of Louvain ; the Brussels internundo said that the friar could not be made to recant, as it was not an inadmissible opinion ; it had been very tactless of the friar to uphold it at that time, however, and he was sent away from the university.