Prehistoric Gold in Europe: Mines, Metallurgy and by R. Gebhard (auth.), Giulio Morteani, Jeremy P. Northover

By R. Gebhard (auth.), Giulio Morteani, Jeremy P. Northover (eds.)

Interest within the research of early eu cultures is transforming into. those cultures have left us gadgets made up of gold, different metals and ceramics. the appearance of steel detectors, coupled with more suitable analytical strategies, has elevated the variety of findings of such items significantly. Gold used to be used for financial and ceremonial reasons and therefore the gold items are a massive key to our figuring out of the social and political buildings, in addition to the technological achievements, of Bronze and Iron Age eu societies.
an accurate interpretation of the data supplied by means of gold and different steel gadgets calls for the cooperation of specialists within the fields of social, fabrics and average technological know-how. unique research of gold deposits in Europe have published the composition and genesis of the deposits as assets of the steel.
In Prehistoric Gold in Europe, a gaggle of major ecu geoscientists, metallurgists and archaeologists speak about the thoughts of gold mining and metallurgy, the socioeconomic significance of gold as coinage and an emblem of wealth and standing, and as a trademark of non secular conduct, in addition to a reflect of exchange and cultural kin reflected through the distribution and kinds of gold items in prehistoric occasions.

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Those fluctuations produced the vertiginous height in gold price around 1980. The exceptional price in 1980 and all the fluctuations resulted from the ebb and flow of sentiments on the part of the officials, as well as private sector holders of gold. Those changes derived from a 43 combination of economic and political developments, which often overwhelmed the fundamentals of gold as a commodity (Anonymous 1987a, 1993; Murray et al. 1993). Table 3. Wages and prices in Germany in the 17th Century and in 1900 and equivalent in gold (in grams) (1 ducat = 104 Kreuzer; 1 Goldgulden = 72 Kreuzer; 1 Taler = 72 Kreuzer).

These authors show how the capacity of precious metal to become a reserve of value susceptible to storage and exchange by weight was recognized in the Aegean world long before its appreciation as a precise standard of value. 46 However, the interpretation of precious metal as a reserve of value implies, as has been shown, a complex organization which must have rested on an efficient farming technology enabling the long-term planning of surpluses. Therefore, one should bear in mind the ideas of Goody (1973, 1976, 1984, 1990) on the relationship between farming technology and property, lineage, marriage and inheritance systems.

Here, besides trade, the Church played a significant role, since it sought to receive the church tithes in gold, which was easier to transport. But in Salzburg, for instance, this brought in only eight florins in 1283, and in 1318 the Papal tax-collector had to transport the silver he obtained to Venice in order to exchange it into gold. While the florin circulated in the north, the Venetian ducat followed the trade of the Adriatic metropolis in the eastern Mediterranean, where it not only became the dominant means of exchange but was also extensively imitated.

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